Myanmar Ramchung Tlangcung Hriamtlaibu Hna – United Wa State Army (UWSA)

United Wa State Army (UWSA) cu United Wa State Party (UWSP) i a ralkap a si.  UWSA ralkap hi 20,000 in  30,000  hrawng an si lai tiah ruah a si. Cu pinah a hran ralkap (auxiliary) 10,000 hrawng an um rih. UWSA ralbawizik (Commander in Chief) cu Bao Youxiang a si. UWSA hi 1989 ah Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in a chuak i anmah tein a dirmi an si.
Jan 1, 2009 ah khan UWSA nih a ukmi hmunhma cu “Wa State Government Special Administrative Region” ah a thanh i President cu Bao Youxiang a si i Vice President cu Xiao Minliang a si. Wa ram cozah cu Myanmar cozah nih phungning tein a cohlang lo nain Myanmar ralkap (Tatmadaw) nih biatak tein hawikom ah ser a timh pengmi a si.
Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in an chuah kum 1989 ah ralkap cozah he kahdaih minthutnak an tuah i Thein Sein cozah he 2013 ah remdaih hnatlaknak an tuah ṭhan.
Hnulei Tuanbia
April 17, 1989 ah Wa ralkap hna cu Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in an chuak i United Wa State Army tiin anmah tein an um. May 9, 1989 ah UWSA cu ralkap cozah he kahdaih hnatlaknak an tuah. Cu kum lila November ah Wa National Council an tuah i United Wa State Party an dirh.
Wa ralkap hna hi Communist Party of Burma (CPB) sin an rak um lio in United Wa State Army tiin an dir hnu 2009 tiang kha Chao Ngi Lai nih a hruai hna. Chao Ngi Lai hi UWSA a dirhtu zong a si. Kum 2009 in atu tiang Bao Youxiang nih a hruai hna.
Kum 1996 ah khan UWSA cu Shan ram i Bing siangpahrang an timi Khun Sa ralkap Shan Mong Tai Army he fak ngai in an i kap i UWSA nih an hmunhma zeimawzat an kauh khawh. Kum 2009, August ah UWSA he Kawl ralkap cu Kokang ah an i kap. Cu kahdohnak cu kahdaih hnatlaknak an tuah in kum 20 hnuah a voikhatnak a si.

UWSA nih Thailand-Myanmar ramri thluan ah a ralkap Division pa 5 a chiah hna. Cu hna cu a tanglei bantukin an si.

  1. 778th Division

  2. 772nd Division
  3. 775th Division
  4. 248th Division
  5. 518th Division

Cun China-Myanmar ramri ah Divsion pa 3 a chiah fawn hna. Cu hna cu a tanglei bantukin an si.

  1. 318th Division

  2. 418th Division
  3. 468th Division

Rit-hai Sii Cinnak Le Zuarnak
Ralkap cozah he kahdaih hnatlaknak an tuahmi chungah UWSA cu zalong tein rit-hai sii cinnak le zuarnak nawl onh an si. Rit-hai sii cu Thailand, China le Laos ram ah an zuar bik.
Asinain 1990, August ah ralkap cozah nih Wa ram ah rit-hai sii cin le zuarnak cu an kham ṭhan. Kum 1994 ah Wa hruaitu pakhat a simi Bao Youyi cu rit-hai sii zuarnak kongah China palik nih tlaih an duhmi a si. Cu kong he pehtlai in UWSA hruaitu Bao Youxiang le Zhao Ngi-Lai cu China ram i mahte uknak nawl a ngeimi Cangyuan Va ah an kal i tualchung cozah hruaitu hna he Cangyuan Hnatlaknak biahren an tuah.
Cu hnatlaknak ah cun “Wa ram in ramleng ah rit-hai sii kuat lo ding. Wa ram in China ram ah rit-hai sii luhter lo ding. Wa ram in Burma cozah ukmi hmunram ah rit-hai sii luhpi lo ding” ti hna an i tel. Asinain Myanmar ramchung hriamtlaibu hna sinah rit-hai sii zuar le zuar lo ding kong aa tel lo.
Kum 1997 ah United Wa State Party nih 2005 ah cun Wa ram ah rit-hai sii a thiang cang lai tiah an thanh. US le China cozah bawmhnak in Wa ram i bing cingtu tampi cu lakphak le khairiat (rubber) cinnak an tuah khawh. Asinain Wa ram chungah siseh a lengah siseh a thli in bing le rit-hai sii dangdang a cingtu cu an um ṭhiamṭhiam ko.

May 29, 2003 ah US cozah Drug Enforcement Administration nih UWSA cu rit-hai si zuarthlaitu bu ah a chiah. Nov 3, 2005 ah US cozah The Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control nih pumpak mining 11 le kompani 16 hna cu rit-hai sii zuarthlaitu Wei Hsueh-kang le UWSA he pehtlaihnak an ngei tiah michia cazin ah a chiah hna. UWSA cu Southeast Asia ah rit-hai sii zuartu bu nganbik ah chiah a si. Wei Hsueh-kang cu New York nichuahlei pengkomh chung ah rit-hai sii zuartu a si tiin US cozah nih April 1, 2017 ah tlaih duh bikmi (wanted) ah an chiah i a umnak a theimi le tlaih dingah bawmtu cu US$ nuai 2 pek dingin an thanh.

Tangka Hmuhnak (Business operations)

UWSA ralbawi pakhat a simi ralkap cozah palai ralbawi Khin Nyunt he hnatlaknak an tuah hnu, 1998 ah rit-hai sii zuarnak in an hmuhmi tangka hmangin Hong Pang Group a dirh i Shan ram Pangkham (Pangsan ti zongin an auh), Yangon, Mandalay, Lashio, Tachilek le Mawlamyine ah office an chiah. Tuan deuh ah cun UWSA nih anmah tein bank zong an rak on bal nain an pehzulh kho lo.

UWSA ralbawizik Bao Youxiang fanu pasal Ho Chun Ting (Aik Haw le Hsiao Haw ti zongin theih a si) cu Rangon Airway ah  Managing Director le Hotel kompani pakhat a simi Tetkham Co Ltd ah Chairman a si. Ralbawi hlun Khin Nyunt ralbawi dangdang hna he naihhiam ngai in a ummi zong a si. Cu pinah lungmansung cawk-zuarnak (gems auctions) le  sakremhnak (construction) rian ngan tampi ah Yangon City Development Council he rian an ṭuanṭi. Rit-hai sii zuarnak i a hawipa an tlaih hnu, 2009 ah Pangkham ah a kir. Kum 2008, Nov 25 ah US cozah  Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control nih minchia cazin ah an khumh ve. Thailand Prime Minister hlun Thaksin Shinawatra le Thailand ralkap zong UWSA he thuk ngai in chawtuahrian (business) ah pehtlaihnak an ngei.

China He Pehtlaihnak

Ramkhel le ral hriamnam ah UWSA a bawmtu bik cu China a si. Ral hriamnam sernak, raldoh cawnnak le security lei thiamnak zongah China nih a bawmh hna. A fawinak in chim ahcun Myanmar ralkap cozah tuaitamtu ah China nih Communist Party of Burma (CPB) a rak hman bantuk khan UWSA zong hi a hman. Kum 2017, April ah China bawmhnak in UWSA nih hriamtlaibu bu 7 aa telmi Federal Political Negotiation and Consultative Committee (FPNCC) an dirh.

Jane’s Intelligence Review nih 2008, April ah China cu UWSA hriamnam a bawmtu bik a si tiah a thanh. UWSA nih China sin in hriamnam an cawk lawng si loin anmah tein AK 47 le hriam zeimawzat an i ser khawh ve. UWSA nih China sin in HN-5N Surface-to-air missile (SAMs) i a hnuah FN-6 Surface-to-air missile zong a ngeih chap. Kum 2012 ah UWSA cu China nih raldohnak mawṭaw 6×6 PTL-02 a pek. April 29, 2013 ah China nih UWSA cu raldohnak Helicopter Mil Mi-17 le TY-90 air-to-air missiles tam ngai a pek ṭhan tiah Jane’s Intelligence Review nih cun a langhter.

Hmunhma (Territory)
Kum 2008 phunghrampi ningah Wa Mahte Uknak Hmunhma (Wa Self-Administered Division) ah peng pa 6 an um. Cu hna cu Mongmao, Pangwaun, Namphan, Pangkham (Pangsang), Hopang le Matman hna an si. UWSA nih an ukmi hmunhma cu 2009 ah Wa State Government Special Administrative Region ah a thanh.
Wa ram hi chaklei le thlanglei tiin an um i an i peh lo, hmun dangdang ah an um. A pahnih in a bitkauh cu 30,000km (mengkulh in 12,000 a si) a si. Thlanglei (Southern) hi Thailand he ramri an i tlai i minung 200,000 an um. Wa thlanglei hi hmasa ah cun Wa ram a si lo nain bing siangpahrang Khun Sa dohnak ah nan kan bawmh caah tiin ralkap cozah nih 1989 ah UWSA sinah an rak pekmi a si. Wa thlanglei uknak cu Southern Administrative Affairs Committee nih an tlaih.
Wa chaklei hi China he ramri an i tlai i thlanglei nakin tampi a kau. Minung umzat 558,000 an si. An khuapi Pangkham (Pangsang) umnak zong a si. County pathum, Special District pahnih le Economic Development Zone pakhat tiin an ṭhen. Pengkomh (District) a ummi dihlak 21 an si.

SAC Le UWSA
Kum 1989 in 2009 tiang hi ralkap cozah le UWSA pehtlaihnak a tluang ko ti khawh a si. Asinain 2009 ah ralkap cozah nih UWSA cu ramri hngak ralkap ser dingin an fial hna i cucu UWSA nih an duh lo caah 2010 in an i pehtlaihnak a chia ṭhan. Thein Sein cozah chan, 2015 ah UWSA cu NCA ah minthut ve dingin an sawm hna nain an duh lo i an karlak pehtlaihnak a chia chinchin.
April 16, 2019 ah UWSA nih an hmunpi Pangkham (Pangsang) ah remdaih hnatlak an tuah kum 30 tlinnak cu hriamnam phuntling le ralkap a thong leng he an thazang hmuhsanak an tuah i Min Aung Hlaing cu an sawm nain a kal duh lo. UWSA nih an thazang hmuhsaknak an tuahmi cu Myanmar ralbawi hna nih an rak duh ziar lo. Anmah hrocer le zeirello ah an ruah i an thin a hung tuk. Asinain buainak ngan deuh a chuah lonak dingah a si khawh chungin an i sum i dai tein an um.
MAH nih nawlngeihnak a lak tlawmpal ah UWSA telh in chaklei hriamtlaibu hna he pehtlaihnak ṭha ser dingin an i zuam colh. Feb 1, 2021 ah nawlngeihnak an lak i thla 2 fai a liam hnu 2021, April thla chungah General Yar Pyae hruaimi SAC remdaihnak palai hna cu UWSA le SSPP he remdaihnak biaruah dingin an kal colh. SAC lei in ralbawi ngan zeimawzat an i tel. Asinain cu tan ah UWSA palai nih an hmunpi Pangsang ah tong loin SAC ukmi le Wa ramri khua Metman ah a ton hna.
Dec 15, 2021 ah Shan nichuahlei National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) hmunpi Mong La ah UWSA telh in chaklei hriamtlaibu hna le SAC palai hna cu tonnak an ngei ṭhan. Cu tonnak ah UWSA lei in ramleng pehtlaihnak hotu chang (Deputy Head of Department) lawng an thlah. Tonnak ah cun SAC palai hna nih chaklei hriamtlaibu hna he pehtlaihnak ṭha ngeih an duhnak kong an chim. Asinain UWSA lei nih zeihmanh an chim lo.
SAC Chairman Ming Aung Hlaing nih tlangcung hriamtlaibu hruaitu hna he hmaitonh in biaruah ka duh a ti lio zongah UWSA Vice President pathum lakah nawlngeihnak a niam bikmi U Law Jacob lawng an thlah.
September 26, 2022 ah UWSA, NDAA le SSPP hruaitu hna cu Naypyidaw ah SAC Chairman he tonnak an ngei. Cu tan ah UWSA nih Wa ram cu ramkulh tling ah cohlan/ser dingin an hal. Wa ramkulh pek ding hi a hlan piin UWSA nih an hal lengmangmi a si.
Tutan khuapau dohthlennak ah UWSA an i tel ve sual lai ti hi SAC nih an ṭih bikmi a si. Cucaah SAC nih Wa ramkulh hi a pek te men lai tiah ramkhel thiamsang tampi nih an zumh. UWSA cu 1989 i ralkap cozah he remdaihnak an tuah hnuin ralkap cozah leiah a dir deuh pengmi a si. Asinain tutan ah cun UWSA hi aa ralring ngaingai. Oct 23, 2022 i Kachin ramkulh Anang Pa an kahmi kongah UWSA nih SAC cawlcangh ning cu ṭha tein kan ngiatthlai ko tiah Oct 26, 2022 ah cathanh an chuah. Tutan dohthlennak ah cun UWSA hi nawlngeihnak latu SAC lei ah a ṭang lai lo i dohthlennak zongah aa tel lai lo ti hi zumh bikmi a si.
KNU kong kan peh ṭhan te lai.
Salai CP Lian

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